Monday, April 04, 2005


Also called  Calixtin, or Calixtine,   any of the spiritual descendants of Jan Hus who believed that the laity, like the clergy, should receive the Eucharist under the forms of both bread and wine (Latin utraque, “each of two”; calix, “chalice”). Unlike the militant Taborites (also followers of Hus), the Utraquists were moderates and maintained amicable relations with the Roman Catholic Church. As a consequence,

Carnivore, Form and function

The possession of a long face or muzzle

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Low Countries

Also called  Benelux Countries  coastal region of northwestern Europe, consisting of Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg (qq.v.). These are together known as the Benelux countries, from the initial letters of their names. The Low Countries are bordered by Germany to the east and France to the south. In 1947 the three nations formed the Benelux Customs Union, which broadened over the years into what a

Muromachi Period

The most successful of the Ashikaga rulers, the third shogun Yoshimitsu, managed

Friday, April 01, 2005


The origins of the Estates-General are to be found in traditions of counsel and aid and the development of corporate representation


In full  Triberg Im Schwarzwald,   city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies along the Gutach River, northeast of Freiburg im Breisgau. Situated in a gorgelike valley among tall pinewoods near Triberg Falls, the highest (535 feet [163 m]) waterfall in Germany, Triberg is one of the oldest Black Forest resorts and is noted for its beneficial climate and its winter-sports facilities. The

Wednesday, March 30, 2005


Ancient Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty, identified by the Romans with Venus (q.v.). Because the Greek word aphros means “foam,” the legend arose that Aphrodite was born from the white foam produced by the severed genitals of Uranus (Heaven), after his son Cronus threw them into the sea. Aphrodite was, in fact, widely worshiped as a goddess of the sea and of seafaring; she

Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Abbott, Edith

Edith Abbott was the older sister of Grace Abbott, who would serve as chief of the United States Children's Bureau from 1921 to 1934. Both sisters were influenced by

Monday, March 28, 2005

Abbot, Charles Greeley

An informal autobiography is provided by Charles Greeley Abbot, Adventures in the World of Science (1958). David H. DeVorkin, “Charles Greeley Abbot,” in Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 73, pp. 3–23 (1998), is a short biography; and David H. DeVorkin, “Defending a Dream: Charles Greeley Abbot's Years at the Smithsonian,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol. 21, part 1, no. 63, pp. 121–136 (February 1990), discusses Abbot's influence on the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

Biblical Literature, Composition and authorship

The Torah, or Pentateuch (Five Scrolls), traditionally the most revered portion of the Hebrew canon, comprises a series of narratives, interspersed with law codes, providing an account of events from the beginning of the world to the death of Moses. Modern critical scholarship tends to hold that there were originally four books (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers)

Saturday, March 26, 2005

Andrew Of Crete, Saint

From his monastery in Jerusalem he was sent to Constantinople (modern Istanbul), where he became deacon of the Hagia Sophia. During the reign of the Byzantine emperor Philippicus Bardanes he was made archbishop of Gortyna and took part